car accident

Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc.
Ann Arbor, Michigan
1-800-924-0494 US
+1-734-994-0494 Int'l

tractor trailer truck collision
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Automotive Engineering Consultants
Expert witness,
accident reconstruction,
and forensic engineering
services.
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LINKS TO RESOURCES

We review all resource links on this page for quality of content and usefulness to our clients, attorneys, insurance claims adjusters, the general public, and ourselves. The content in linked web sites belongs to the person or organization sponsoring the site.

We want this resource page to be helpful to the engineer and non-engineer alike. If you know of a link to a resource that would be useful for us to include, or if you find one that doesn't work properly, please email us: inquiry@automotive-engineers.com.

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Vehicle Components
Brakes
Bumpers
Engines
Fuel System
Seat Belts & Air Bags
Transmissions
Wheels & Tires

Vehicle Makes & Models
Car Manufacturers
Truck Manufacturers
Heavy Equipment Manufacturers
Recreational Vehicles

Regulations & Standards
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS)
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
State Codes

Other
Recall Notices
Maintenance & Repair
Safety
Fuel Economy
Environmental
Science
Legal
Trucking
Organizations & Agencies
News & Magazines
Motor Sports
Museums
General Reference

Contact Us

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Vehicle Components


Brakes

If you are an attorney or insurance person with a case involving possible brake failure, questions of when a vehicle began braking prior to a collision, car brakes, truck brakes, farm equipment brakes, or any other type of braking problem, contact Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc. We're happy to discuss your case over the telephone at no charge for the initial consultation. We provide product liability and failure analysis, expert witness services, accident reconstruction, forensic engineering, and other engineering services.

How Brakes Work
Explains what happens when you push on the brake pedal of a car. Includes a simple diagram of brake system components, and sections on the master cylinder, drum brakes, disc brakes, power brakes, and anti-lock brakes.

Antilock Brake Questions & Answers - NHTSA
"When used properly, an antilock brake system (ABS) is a safe and effective braking system. ABS allows the driver to maintain directional stability, control over steering, and in some situations, to reduce stopping distances during emergency braking situation, particularly on wet and slippery road surface. To gain this safety advantage, drivers must learn how to operate their ABS correctly." Basic ABS information from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

Antilock Brake Questions & Answers (IINHS/HLDI)
"Why aren't car antilocks reducing crashes as expected?" One possibility: "many car owners don't know how to use antilock brakes effectively." Another: "some motorists may drive less cautiously because they believe antilocks allow them to brake better." From the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety / Highway Loss Data Institute (IINHS/HLDI)

Tips for Driving with ABS (Anti-Lock Brake Systems)
From the National Safety Council.

The Physics of Brake Pads
Part of the "How Stuff Works" article "How Long Do Brake Pads Last?"

Air Brakes
These are the brakes typically used by heavy trucks (18-wheelers, dump trucks, and others), buses, and trailers. Simple diagram and explanation, with links to more information.

49CFR393.52 - Brake Performance
As with many regulations, it helps if you're an engineer and/or a lawyer, but with a little effort and some of the other links on this page, anyone can read this regulation to see what brake performance standards a motor vehicle must meet if it is driven on a public highway.
U.S. Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 - Transportation
Part 393 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation
Subpart C - Brakes
Section 393.52 - Brake performance

Brake Manufacturers Council
Industry organization for manufacturers of automotive brake parts and brake systems.

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Bumpers

If you are an attorney or insurance person with a case involving bumper design, materials, failure or performance, contact Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc.

Bumpers
"They're supposed to limit damage in minor collisions, but many don't." Facts and explanations from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and the Highway Loss Data Institute.

"You Call That a Bumper?"
Written in 1997 but still valuable for its insights into bumper construction and performance.

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Engines

If you are an attorney or insurance person with a case involving a possible engine problem, questions of whether an automobile, truck or industrial engine was functioning properly at the time of an accident, or any other type of engine failure or engine performance issue, contact Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc. We're happy to discuss your case over the telephone at no charge for the initial consultation. We provide engineering, accident reconstruction, product liability, failure analysis and expert witness services.

How Car Engines Work
Read the brief introduction, then scroll down for easy-to-understand explanations of internal combustion, different types of car engines, and the principal systems found in cars today. As this page says: "Almost all cars today use a reciprocating internal combustion engine because this engine is relatively efficient, relatively inexpensive, and relatively easy to refuel. These advantages beat any other existing technology for moving a car around."

A Short Course on Automobile Engines
A little more technically sophisticated, with great illustrations and a first-rate animation of a piston traveling up and down as the intake and exhaust valves open and close and the spark plug fires.

Animated Engines
Click on each type of engine to see simple animated drawings of the engine in action, followed by drawings and short explanations. Includes a variety of internal combustion (four stroke, diesel, two stroke, etc.), steam (locomotive, oscillating, CO2, etc.), and Stirling engines. Comprehensive and easy to understand.

How Diesel Engines Work
A good followup to "How Car Engines Work." Compares diesel and gasoline engines, with plenty of links to related articles, including one on biodiesel fuel, and an interesting Diesel Engine Image Gallery..

How Turbochargers Work
Explains how a turbocharger boosts horsepower. The following sections include turbocharger design, turbocharger parts, and much more.

Cummins Engine Information
Click "Products" then "Engine Business." Then on the pull-down menus to get information about Cummins on-highway engines, off-highway engines, marine gensets, and parts and service.
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Fuel System

If you are an attorney or insurance person with a case involving possible fuel system failure, questions of how a particular fuel system should have functioned or did function, whether fuel system failure contributed to a collision or other accident, or other fuel system issues, contact Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc. We're happy to discuss your case over the telephone at no charge for the initial consultation. We provide accident reconstruction, product liability and failure analysis, and expert witness services.

Fuel System
Excellent overview of fuel systems, gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel tank, fuel lines, fuel pump, fuel filter, and more. Explains fuel systems in simple terms.

How Fuel Injection Systems Work
Introduction to fuel injection, why fuel injection has replaced the carburetor in most automotive applications, what happens when you step on the gas, the injector itself, engine sensors, engine controls and performance chips.

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Seat Belts & Air Bags

If you are an attorney or insurance person with a case involving an airbag, air bag deployment, or air bag failure to deploy, contact Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc. We're happy to discuss your case over the telephone at no charge for the initial consultation. 800-924-0494.

Example of seatbelts saving lives
This news story about an RV accident includes remarkable photos of the mangled motorhome. The motorhome rolled over and was destroyed, but the driver and passenger, who were wearing seatbelts, not only survived but suffered only minor injuries. Source: www.independentmail.com
Airbags
Facts and explanations from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety / Highway Loss Data Institute (IIHS/HLDI) website.

Air Bag Safety
Oriented toward ordinary drivers and passengers; includes an overview of how airbags work, types of air bags, and safety tips. From the National Highway Transportation and Safety Administration (NHTSA) website.

Airbag Videos
Videos include: "Full frontal test with and without airbag" and a couple of others. Notice the dummy is wearing a seat belt on the "with airbag" test, and not wearing a seat belt on the "without airbag" test. Always wear your seat belt, regardless of whether the vehicle has air bags!

Click It or Ticket
National seat belt safety campaign, along with other seat belt safety information from the National Highway Transportation and Safety Administration (NHTSA) website.

How Wearing Seat Belts Can Help You Save Money, Time and Your Life
How to use a seat belt properly. Advantages of wearing a seat belt. Seat belts and the laws of physics. The importance of wearing a seat belt even if the vehicle has air bags.
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Transmissions

If you are an attorney or insurance person with a case involving possible transmission failure, questions of how a particular automatic or standard transmission should have functioned or did function, whether transmission or drive train failure contributed to a collision or other accident, or other transmission issues, contact Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc. We're happy to discuss your case over the telephone at no charge for the initial consultation. We provide accident reconstruction, product liability and failure analysis, and expert witness services.

How Automatic Transmissions Work - and - How Manual Transmissions Work
Good basic overview, presented simply and accurately. See the Table of Contents at the bottom, for more on planetary gearsets, gear ratios, first, second and third gear, overdrive, reverse, clutches, synchronizers, and more.

How Clutches Work
Why a car needs a clutch (or more than one!) and how they work with manual and automatic transmissions. Be sure to look for the animations on the second and third pages of the article! Watching the clutch plate engage is instructive, and you can "assemble" and "disassemble" the animated clutch as many times as you want!

How Torque Converters Work
Why a car with an automatic transmission needs a torque converter, what a torque converter does, how it works, and much more. Helpful, clear diagrams and photos of actual torque converters.
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Wheels & Tires

If you are an attorney or insurance person with a case involving possible wheel or tire failure, questions of whether a tire blew out before or after a collision, what part a tire or wheel problem may have played in a fatal accident, or any other type of wheel or tire problem, contact Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc. We're happy to discuss your case over the telephone at no charge for the initial consultation. We provide accident reconstruction, product liability and failure analysis, and expert witness services.

What's Inside a Tire?
Diagram and explanation from the Rubber Manufacturers Association (RMA). Shows and briefly explains tread, sidewall, innerliner, belts, body ply, and bead.

How a Tire Is Made
From planning and design through manufacturing; from the Rubber Manufacturers Association (RMA)

Tire Specs Explained
All about the factors included in The Tire and Rim Association's interchangeability standards for tires, rims, and related parts. Includes explanations of maximum load rating inflation pressure ratings for P-metric and light truck tires, tread depth, rim width range and measurement, section width, tread width, overall diameter, and revolutions per mile.

Determining the Age of a Tire
Explains and gives pictures illustrating the DOT Tire Identification number required to be stamped on tires manufactured since the year 2000. Tire age can be a factor in tire failure.

"The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) requires that Tire Identification Numbers be a combination of the letters DOT, followed by ten, eleven or twelve letters and/or numbers that identify the manufacturing location, tire size and manufacturer's code, along with the week and year the tire was manufactured."

Frequently Asked Questions - Tires
Tire placards, psi, and other tire safety issues including pressure, bald tires, tire rotation, and blowouts.

Driving Through Tire Blowouts
Explains what can cause a blowout and how a driver should respond to minimize loss of control and the chance of a serious accident.

Wheel Alignment
What it means for a vehicle to be out of alignment; types of alignment; camber, caster, cross-camber and cross-caster, toe, thrust angle, alignment ranges, and recommendations.

Hydroplaning: The Role Tires Play
What it means for a vehicle to hydroplane; tire factors that play a part in determining the speed and water depth at which a car will hydroplane.

The Sidewall Story
How to interpret the markings on the sidewall of a passenger car or light truck tire, with a simple diagram and explanation of treadwear, traction, and temperature.

Tire Safety
Informative video covering all the basics of tire safety, tire data, preventive maintenance and how to respond in emergencies.

Trailer Wheel Mounting Recommended Practices
6-page document published by the Trailer Safety Industry Coalition, December 2004

Rubber FAQs
All about natural and synthetic rubber. From the Rubber Manufacturers Association (RMA)
Tire Manufacturers:
BF Goodrich
Bridgestone-Firestone
Continental
Cooper
Dunlop
General
Goodyear
Kelly
Michelin
Pirelli
Uniroyal
Yokohama
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Vehicle Makes & Models


Car Manufacturers

This a mere sampling of some of major passenger car manufacturers. For a more comprehensive list of worldwide automobile manufacturers, visit Autopedia.com.

Acura

Alfa Romeo

Audi

BMW

Buick

Cadillac

Chevrolet

Chrysler

Daewoo

Dodge

Ferrari

Fiat

Ford

GM

Honda

Hyundai

Infiniti

Isuzu

Jaguar

Jeep

Kia

Land Rover

Lexus

Lotus

Mazda

Mercedes

Mercury

MG

Mitsubishi

Nissan

Oldsmobile

Pontiac

Porsche

Saab

Saturn

Subaru

Suzuki

Toyota

Volkswagen

Volvo

Microcars
Interested in very high gas mileage and low cost? Microcars are growing in popularity, and flourishing in Europe, Britain, and Japan (where they are commonly known as "keicars" or k-cars). One of the leading manufacturers is the French company Aixam.
 
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Truck and Bus Manufacturers

If you are an insurance person or an attorney with a case involving a truck or other large vehicle, from semi (tractor trailer truck) to pickup truck, call Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc. We're happy to discuss your case over the telephone at no charge for the initial consultation.

Chevy

DAF

Ford

Freightliner

GMC

Isuzu

Iveco

Kenworth

Mack

Mercedes-Benz

Mitsubishi Fuso

International

PACCAR

Peterbilt

Volvo


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Heavy Equipment Manufacturers

If you are an attorney or insurance person with a case involving heavy equipment such as a truck, bulldozer, skidder, crane, grader, tractor, forklift, or excavator, contact Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc. We're happy to discuss your case over the telephone at no charge for the initial consultation. We provide accident reconstruction, product liability and failure analysis, and expert witness services.

Case
Articulated trucks, dozers, backhoes, excavators, forklifts, graders, skid steer loaders, and more.

Caterpillar
Caterpillar is the world's leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines and industrial gas turbines.

John Deere
John Deere products include: Agricultural Equipment (tractor, combine, cotton picker, cotton stripper, round baler, square baler, forage harvester, rake, tedder, mower, flail chopper, windrower, sprayer, air seeder, air cart, box drill, integral planter, drawn planter, disk, plow, ripper, cultivator, hoe, roller harrow, cutter, shredder, scraper, ATV, utility vehicle), Residential, Commercial and Golf & Turf (tractor, mower,utility vehicle, trimmer, edger, chain saw, blower, tiller, spreader, aerator), Construction (articulated dump truck, backhoe loaer, crawler dozer, crawler loader, excavator, 4WD loader, motor grader, landscape loader, skid steer, scraper, waste handler), Forestry (feller-buncher, skidder, forestry swing machine, knuckleboom loader, harvester, forwarder), and Power Systems (industrial diesel engines, generator drive diesel engines, marine diesel engines, mining diesel engines, axles, transmissions, modular pump dirves, planetary gear drives).

Komatsu
Complete line of earthmoving equipment: excavator, bulldozer, dump truck, backhoe loader, motor grader, skid steer loader, crusher, shovel, crawler carrier, wheel loader.

Volvo Construction Equipment
Wheel loaders, excavators, articulated haulers, motor graders, backhoes, skid steers, compact excavators and compact wheel loaders.
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Recreational Vehicles

If you are an attorney or insurance person with a case involving a recreational vehicle whether Class A motorhome, Class C camper, fifth wheel, travel trailer, all-terrain vehicle (ATV), snowmobile or other type of RV, contact Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc. We're happy to discuss your case over the telephone at no charge for the initial consultation. We provide accident reconstruction, product liability and failure analysis, and expert witness services.

RV Safety & Education Foundation
"The RV Safety & Education Foundation is a nonprofit organization with its principle place of business in Merritt Island, Florida. It is dedicated to the improvement of recreation vehicle safety, with a focus on consumer education."

Recreational Vehicle Safety
The University of Michigan Health System offers safety considerations for use of snowmobiles, personal watercraft (jet skis), all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) and off-road vehicles (ORVs).
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Regulations & Standards

If you are an attorney or insurance person with a case requiring research and interpretation of U.S. federal, state, or local transportation and vehicle regulations, contact Automotive Engineering Consultants, Inc. We're happy to discuss your case over the telephone at no charge for the initial consultation.


U. S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)

"The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. It is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. Each volume of the CFR is updated once each calendar year and is issued on a quarterly basis."

Following are a few representative sections of the CFR pertinent to automotive and vehicular issues. Our company regularly researches federal regulations relevant to particular cases on behalf of our clients.

Title 49 - Transportation

Chapter III - Federal Highway Administration, Department of Transportation

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations

Part 392 - Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles

Stopped Commercial Motor Vehicles

392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

Use of Lighted Lamps and Reflectors

392.33 - Obscured lamps or reflective devices / materials.

Fueling Precautions

392.50 - Ignition of fuel; prevention.

Part 393, Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation

Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring

393.11 - Lamps and reflective devices.

393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

Brakes

393.40 - Required brake systems.

393.52 - Brake performance.

Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories

393.75 - Tires.

393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

Chapter V - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Department of Transportation.

Part 571, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS)

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Regulations (FMVSS)
Foreword and summary of FMVSS and Regulations and other regulations. A good overview, with links to the descriptions of each of the individual regs.
U.S. Federal Lighting Guide
This easy-to-use tool graphically represents requirements for specific vehicle lamps and reflective devices. Click on a type of truck and see the required lighting. Illustrations and table with references to FMVSS 571.108. From the National Truck Equipment Association. (NTEA).

571.102 - Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect.

571.108 - Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

571.208 - Occupant crash protection.

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Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)

"The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is focused on reducing crashes, injuries and fatalities involving large trucks and buses." See particularly the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs)

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National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

"Our mission: Save lives, prevent injuries, reduce vehicle-related crashes." In addition to regulations, NHTSA maintains a consumer complaint page, a database of safety recalls, and searchable technical service bulletins (TSBs).

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U. S. Department of Transportation (DOT)

U.S. DOT - Federal Highway Administration Legislation, Regulations and Guidance.

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Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)

SAE Technical Standards are copyrighted and not available online. We keep copies of the SAE Handbook and research current and past standards for our clients.

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Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)

Trucking Industry OSHA Standards
"OSHA regulations govern the safety and health of the workers and the responsibilities of employers to ensure their safety at the warehouse, dock, construction site, and in other places truckers go to deliver and pick up loads throughout the country. While OSHA does not regulate self-employed truckers, it does regulate workplaces to which the truckers deliver goods and the workers which receive those goods."
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State Motor Vehicle and Transportation Codes

Michigan
Chapter Index to the Michigan Compiled Laws. See Chapters 256 and 257 - Motor Vehicles, and Chapter 260 - Transportation Systems.

Texas
Texas Transportation Code. See, for example, Chapter 545, Operation and Movement of Vehicles).

State Transportation Web Sites
Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.
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Other


Recall Notices

All Data
A subscription allows you look up recall notices, technical service bulletins (TSBs) and more.

NHTSA Recall Database
Office of Defects Investigation of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Includes a search engine for finding information about recalls of vehicles, child safety seats, tires, etc.
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Maintenance & Repair

carcare.org
"Taking an active role in maintaining your vehicle is the best way to avoid costly repairs down the road. This site was developed to help you learn how." On the front page, mouse over the various parts and systems and click to find maintenance information: tail lights, headlights, cleaning and polishing, brakes, fuel filter, exhaust system, chassis lubrication, suspension, tire inflation and condition, check oil, engine oil filter, hoses, battery and cables, belts, spark plugs, coolant (antifreeze), power steering fluid, check engine light on, etc.

Understanding Your Car
The Family Car Learning Center. Starts with the basics and explains clearly: engines, automatic transmissions, brakes, wheel alignment, hybrid power systems, dashboard gauges, air conditioner, electrical systems, cooling system, ignition system, fuel system, emissions system, battery, charging system, starting system, and on board diagnostics.
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Safety

Rollover Accidents
The Resource list at the left includes information on rollover accidents: types of rollovers, causes of rollovers, how to minimize risk and injury, effects of tire pressure and loading, and proper maneuvering. Facts from the site: "Rollover crashes account for 33% of all passenger vehicle fatalities" and "Taller, narrow vehicles are more likely to roll over." From the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's SaferCar.gov site.

"Vehicle Crashworthiness and Occupant Protection"
"Over the past three decades, safety experts have published hundreds of research papers to address structural crashworthiness, restraint systems, and injury biomechanics. However, these are not available in a single source for quick reference. The objective of this book is to provide essential design safety information in a single publication for the convenience of the safety engineer." The entire book is posted in pdf format, compliments of the American Iron and Steel Institute.

AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety
"The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety's mission is to identify problems, foster research that seeks solutions, and disseminate information and educational materials that promote good traffic safety practices."

Handling Sport Utility Vehicles on Slick Roads
Safe winter driving tips for SUV drivers, from SmartMotorist.com.

Overweight Truck Enforcement
Resource site particularly for Illinois and surrounding states. Not particularly up-to-date, but the News and Photos section illustrate some of the problems caused by overweight trucks, including dump trucks, semis and others.

"The Dangers of Large Trucks"
Facts and figures, and links to additional truck safety articles.

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
"The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is focused on reducing crashes, injuries, and fatalities involving large trucks and buses."

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
"Our mission: Save lives, prevent injuries, reduce vehicle-related crashes."

NHTSA's "safercar.gov"
Resources, Equipment and Safety, Crash Tests and Rollover Ratings, Defects and Recalls.

2003 Annual Report of All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV)-Related Deaths and Injuries
From the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

NHTSA Safety Problems & Issues
"This page lists search engines which retrieve information from the available Database Files from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Each search engine has a brief description of what it does." Compliance Testing, Consumer Complaints, Defect Investigations, Recalls, Technical Service Bulletins, and more.

OSHA - Trucking Industry Safety and Health Topics
U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Adminstration (OSHA). "This site offers information about preventing occupational illness and injury in the trucking industry through links to summaries, training presentations, publications and other resources. It also offers a one-stop location to find applicable Department of Transportation (DOT) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compliance requirements related to worker protection."

Crash Testing Data
Summary of crash test data available from NHTSA and IIHS.

"Safe Brakes Are No Accident"
Importance of proper brake maintenance, awareness of possible brake problems, and how to check your brakes. Helpful links.

Tailgating
"Forget pride. Forget saving a few seconds. Drive sensibly and dump the tailgater as soon as possible, congratulate yourself when you have done so, because once again you have used an advanced driving practice to make a potentially dangerous situation safe. These strategies are easy, they work and they don't increase anyone's stress. Drive safely! "

WHO: "World report on road traffic injury prevention"
"Road traffic injuries are a major but neglected public health challenge that requires concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Of all the systems with which people have to deal every day, road traffic systems are the most complex and the most dangerous. Worldwide, an estimated 1.2 million people are killed in road crashes each year and as many as 50 million are injured. Projections indicate that these figures will increase by about 65% over the next 20 years unless there is new commitment to prevention. Nevertheless, the tragedy behind these figures attracts less mass media attention than other, less frequent types of tragedy. The World report on road traffic injury prevention is the first major report being jointly issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank on this subject. It underscores their concern that unsafe road traffic systems are seriously harming global public health and development. It contends that the level of road traffic injury is unacceptable and that it is largely avoidable."

RV Safety & Education Foundation
Much of the information on this site concerns weighing your recreational vehicle and RV weights such as GVWR (gross vehicle weight rating) and GAWR (gross axle weight rating), which are regulated by law and important for safety. Whether your RV is a motorhome, camper, fifth wheel or trailer, this site will help you be safe! Partcularly useful are the "A Tip for You!" section, as well as Definitions/Terms and Articles.

Winter Driving Tips
Three factors to consider for safe winter driving: visibility, traction, and driving style. Links to articles about preparing your vehicle for winter, and proper winter tires.
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Fuel Economy

Gas Mileage Tips
Including specifics on why and how to drive more efficiently; keep your car in shape; plan & combine trips; and choose a more efficient vehicle. From http://www.fueleconomy.gov/, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

"Scientific American: Why is the fuel economy of an automobile worse in the winter than in the summer?"
Scientific American article discussing the science behind miles per gallon (mpg). Chassis dynamometer testing, how to interpret the fuel economy sticker on a car means, effects of temperature on electric motor, car engine, transmission, and tire performance, as well as oil viscosity and aerodynamic drag (how the car moves through the air).

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)
"Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales weighted average fuel economy, expressed in miles per gallon (mpg), of a manufacturer's fleet of passenger cars or light trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 8,500 lbs. or less, manufactured for sale in the United States, for any given model year. Fuel economy is defined as the average mileage traveled by an automobile per gallon of gasoline (or equivalent amount of other fuel) consumed as measured in accordance with the testing and evaluation protocol set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)."

www.fueleconomy.gov
Website provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy.
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Environmental

"Be Car Care Aware" Campaign
Sponsored by an automotive aftermarket organization. "Reversing the trend in unperformed maintenance will increase profitability in the aftermarket, conserve energy, improve highway safety and benefit the environment." Click on "Free Car Care Guide" to get the Car Care Council's free 56-page guide.

Used Motor Oil Collection and Recycling
"You can make a difference by recycling your used motor oil." For do-it-yourselfers. Includes links to collection sites and information on how to change your vehicle's oil.

Microcars
Interested in very high gas mileage and low cost? Microcars are growing in popularity, and flourishing in Europe, Britain, and Japan (where they are commonly known as "keicars" or k-cars). One of the leading manufacturers is the French company Aixam.
 
"Driving for the Environment's Sake"
Tips for enviromentally friendly driving.

U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Sources
"Energy is the vital force powering business, manufacturing, and the transportation of goods and services to serve the American and world economies. Energy supply and demand plays an increasingly vital role in our national security and the economic output of our nation."

GreenTruck.com
"A service provided by American Trucking Associations in cooperation with the Transportation Environmental Resource Center. This site provides timely and reliable information about environmental compliance requirements at trucking and vehicle maintenance facilities. From underground storage tanks to diesel smoke testing, we've got your answers."

"How Hybrids Work"
Simple clear explanation of hybrid technology, from www.fueleconomy.gov.

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Science & Scientific Reference

WebElements
Periodic table of elements. Click on each element for a description, history, how it can be isolated, compounds, uses, physical data, electronic data, nuclear data, biological data, geological data, and structure.

Common Conversion Factors
Convert horsepower to watts, foot-pounds to joules, gallons to liters, and so on.
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Legal Reference

Babylon Ltd. Legal Dictionary
Collection of Free Legal Dictionaries comprising 10 dictionaries, with well known titles such as: the 'Lectric Law Library, USPTO Patent and Trademark Glossary, Duhaime's Law ," among others. Includes international as well as U.S. law.

Law.Com Legal Dictionary
Good brief definitions, easy to search or browse.

Forensic Engineering
"Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate/function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. The consequences of failure are dealt with by the law of product liability. The subject is applied most commonly in civil law cases, although may be of use in criminal law cases. Generally the purpose of a forensic engineering investigation is to locate cause or causes of failure with a view to improve performance or life of a component, or to assist a court in determining the facts of an accident. It can also involve investigation of intellectual property claims, especially patents." Methods, examples, analysis, applications, and more.

Lemon Law Information and Sites
Comprehensive list of resources concerning U.S. laws concerning defective vehicles ("lemons"). Includes 50 state by state lemon law summaries.

Lawyers Desk Reference
By Harry M. Philo, Jr., Harry M. Philo, and Linda Miller Atkinson

National Directory of Expert Witnesses
From the National Forensic Center

Consultants and Consulting Organizations Directory
From Gale.
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Trucking

American Trucking Associations (ATA)
"The mission of the American Trucking Associations, Inc., is to serve and represent the interests of the trucking industry with one united voice; to influence in a positive manner Federal and State governmental actions; to advance the trucking industry's image, efficiency, competitiveness, and profitability; to provide educational programs and industry research; to promote safety and security on our nation's highways and among our drivers; and to strive for a healthy business environment."

e-Trucker.com
Trucking headlines, industry briefs, jobs, fleets, driving schools, loads, suppliers, fuel prices, routing, weather and much more.

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)
"The primary mission of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is to reduce crashes, injuries and fatalities involving large trucks and buses." Includes truck and bus registration and licensing, truck safety, trucking rules and regulations.

GreenTruck.com
"A service provided by American Trucking Associations in cooperation with the Transportation Environmental Resource Center. This site provides timely and reliable information about environmental compliance requirements at trucking and vehicle maintenance facilities. From underground storage tanks to diesel smoke testing, we've got your answers."

Layover.com
For truckers and trucking companies. Articles, Q&A, advice and resources.

National Truck Equipment Association
"The National Truck Equipment Association (NTEA), established in 1964, currently represents over 1,800 companies that manufacture, distribute, install, buy, sell and repair commercial trucks, truck bodies, truck equipment, trailers and accessories. Buyers of work trucks and the major commercial truck chassis manufacturers also belong to the Association."

Truck Drivers Guide to Antilock Braking Systems
Includes simple diagrams and explanations, questions and answers, and "How Should I Brake with ABS?" From the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)

U.S. Federal Lighting Guide
This easy-to-use tool graphically represents requirements for specific vehicle lamps and reflective devices. Click on a type of truck and see the required lighting. Illustrations and table with references to FMVSS 571.108. From the National Truck Equipment Association. (NTEA).
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Organizations & Agencies

Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety (AHAS)
"Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety is an alliance of consumer, health and safety groups and insurance companies and agents working together to make America's roads safer." Facts and figures on safety belts, impaired driving, rollover, teen drivers, and more.

American Automobile Association (AAA)
"AAA is a federation of 81 motor clubs serving more than 45 million members in the United States and Canada."

American Iron and Steel Institute
All about automotive applications of steel. Lots of good technical information on materials, structures, and crashworthiness.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
"Technical, educational and research issues of the engineering and technology community."

American Traffic Safety Services Association (ATSSA)
Represents."companies and individuals in the traffic control and roadway safety industry. Over 1,800 ATSSA members provide the majority of roadway safety features, services and materials used on our nation's roadways. These include guardrails, striping, signage, lighting, drums, cones and barricades."

American Trucking Associations (ATA)
"The mission of the American Trucking Associations, Inc., is to serve and represent the interests of the trucking industry with one united voice; to influence in a positive manner Federal and State governmental actions; to advance the trucking industry's image, efficiency, competitiveness, and profitability; to provide educational programs and industry research; to promote safety and security on our nation's highways and among our drivers; and to strive for a healthy business environment."

Automotive Aftermarket Industry Association (AAIA)
"AAIA serves the automotive aftermarket, a $250 billion industry employing millions of Americans at over 500,000 business locations. 'Aftermarket' includes all products and services purchased for motor vehicles after original sale." AAIA also sponsors www.carcarecouncil.org, aimed at helping vehicle owners better maintain their cars and light trucks.

Automotive Service Association (ASA)
"Advancing professionalism and excellence in the automotive service industry."

Bureau of Transportation Statistics
"Our mission is to lead in developing transportation data and information of high quality, and to advance their effective use in both public and private transportation decision making." Part of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).

Center for Transportation Research (CTR)
"CTR is a nationally recognized research institution focusing on transportation research, education, and public service."

Department of Transportation (DOT)
The mission of the U.S. Department of Transportation is to "serve the United States by ensuring a fast, safe, efficient, accessible and convenient transportation system that meets our vital national interests and enhances the quality of life of the American people, today and into the future."

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation and Air Quality
"U.S. EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) protects public health and the environment by controlling air pollution from motor vehicles, engines, and the fuels used to operate them, and by encouraging travel choices that minimize emissions. These "mobile sources" include cars and light trucks, large trucks and buses, nonroad recreational vehicles (such as dirt bikes and snowmobiles), farm and construction equipment, lawn and garden equipment, marine engines, aircraft, and locomotives."

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
"FHWA is charged with the broad responsibility of ensuring that America's roads and highways continue to be the safest and most technologically up-to-date." Part of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT).

Federal Trade Commission
Search on "automobiles" for consumer and business information.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS)
"The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is an independent, nonprofit, scientific and educational organization dedicated to reducing the losses -- deaths, injuries, and property damage -- from crashes on the nation's highways. The Institute is wholly supported by auto insurers."

International Motor Vehicle Program at MIT
"IMVP is the oldest and largest international research consortium aimed at understanding the challenges facing the global automotive industry."

Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA)
"JAMA is a nonprofit trade association for Japanese car, truck, bus and motorcycle manufacturers."

National Automobile Dealers Association
Tracks car sales and publishes new and used vehicle pricing and other information. For online car prices, click on "Consumer" and then "Used Car Values."

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
"The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's mission is to save lives, prevent injuries and reduce traffic related health care and other economic costs. The Agency develops, promotes and implements effective educational, engineering, and enforcement programs to end preventable tragedies and reduce economic costs associated with vehicle use and highway travel."

National Truck Equipment Association
"The National Truck Equipment Association (NTEA), established in 1964, currently represents over 1,600 companies that manufacture, distribute, install, buy, sell and repair commercial trucks, truck bodies, truck equipment, trailers and accessories. Buyers of work trucks and the major commercial truck chassis manufacturers also belong to the Association."

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
"SAE is your one-stop resource for standards development, events, and technical information and expertise used in designing, building, maintaining, and operating self-propelled vehicles for use on land or sea, in air or space."

Texas Transportation Institute (TTI)
"The mission of TTI is to solve transportation problems through research, to transfer technology, and to develop diverse human resources to meet the transportation challenges of tomorrow." The Texas Transportation Institute is "an official research agency for the Texas Department of Transportation and the Texas Railroad Commission. TTI works closely with many state and federal agencies as well as the private sector to improve the safety and efficiency of the transportation system."

Tire and Rim Association
"The Tire and Rim Association, Inc. (TRA) is the standardizing body for the tire, rim, valve and allied parts industry for the United States. TRA was founded in 1903 and its primary purpose is to establish and promulgate interchangeability standards for tires, rims, valves and allied parts."

The Tire Society, Inc
"The Tire Society, Inc. is an Ohio not-for-profit corporation with worldwide membership whose charter is to increase and disseminate knowledge as it pertains to the science, and technology of tires. It hosts a two-day Meeting and Conference in Akron, Ohio every year which includes the presentation of twenty to thirty original papers as well as a plenary lecture by a leader in Tire Mechanics. In addition, it edits and distributes a critically reviewed, authoritative journal, Tire Science and Technology on a Quarterly Basis."

Transportation Research Board
"The Transportation Research Board (TRB) is a division of the National Research Council, which serves as an independent adviser to the federal government and others on scientific and technical questions of national importance. The National Research Council is jointly administered by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board - one of six major divisions of the National Research Council - is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research."

Transportation Research Center
"Transportation Research Center Inc. (TRC Inc.) provides comprehensive research, development, and testing services and facilities to manufacturers, industry organizations and government agencies worldwide....The Center) is an independent automotive proving ground located on approximately 4,500 acres of land in East Liberty, Ohio, approximately 40 miles northwest of Columbus."

University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI)
"The UMTRI Library houses one of the world's most extensive collections of literature on traffic safety. It reflects the diversity of disciplines that the field comprises: biomechanics, lighting, vehicle dynamics, driver behavior, and injuries from motor-vehicle crashes. The collection is also strong in the areas of intelligent transportation systems, crash causation, driver distraction, and the automotive industry. Its collection includes more than 110,000 items and more than 210 periodical titles. The library's catalog can be searched online. The library also continues to add its catalog records to TLCat, a union catalog that comprises the holdings of nineteen different transportation libraries."

United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR)
"USCAR is the umbrella organization of DaimlerChrysler, Ford and General Motors, which was formed in 1992 to further strengthen the technology base of the domestic auto industry through cooperative research."
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News & Magazines

Automotive Industry News
National and international news about auto makers, suppliers, dealers, legal issues, and much more; national and international. Updated daily.

AutoWeek
News, editorials, photos, reader forums, vehicle reviews, vintage cars, and more.

Automotive Engineering International
Published by the Society of Automotive Engineers.

Car and Driver
News, commentary, new car reviews, photo galleries, multimedia.

Car Collector
Feature articles, columns, links, photos. History and how-to. The online version contains only excerpts from the print magazine.

Four Wheeler
Features, Brand Pages, Events, Reader's Rigs, Videos, Project Vehicles, Road Tests, Tech, Forums, Race Results.

Motor Trend
Buyer's Guide, Road Tests, Features, Future Vehicles, Auto Shows, MultiMedia, Forums.

Performance Racing Industry
"The gateway to the worldwide racing marketplace."

Road & Track
Features, News, Technical, Buyer's Guide, Racing, Forums, Shop.
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Motor Sports

motorsport.com
Champ Car World Series
Formula 1
Indycar Racing
NASCAR
North American Motorsports Pages
Sports Car Club of America (SCCA)
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Museums

Walter P. Chrysler Museum
Collection includes many vintage automobiles, including a 1902 Rambler Model C Runabout, 1917 Willys Knight Model 88-8 Touring Car, 1929 1/2-Ton Pickup, and many more. Located in Auburn Hills, Michigan

Auburn Cord Duesenberg Museum
"Located in the original Art Deco building that was used by the Auburn Automobile Company as its showroom and administrative building." Auburn, Indiana.

Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village
Exhibits include "Automobile in American Life," "Heroes of the Sky," and the Transportation collection. Located in Dearborn, Michigan.

Gilmore Car Museum
"Dreams of finding an "old car in a barn" are a daily reality here. Nestled on 90 landscaped acres in restored historic barns are nearly 200 extraordinary vehicles spanning more than 100 years of automotive heritage. Here you will find exhibits ranging from a 1899 Locomobile, to the classic Duesenberg or the elusive Tucker '48, and from the Model T to the muscle cars of the 60s and 70s."
Located in southern Michigan, midway between Chicago and Detroit.

National Museum of the U.S. Air Force
The museum is great and so is the web site. Military aviation from before World War I to the present, including space flight. Located near Dayton, Ohio.

Petersen Automotive Museum
"Take our journey through one of mankind's greatest achievements...The Automobile." Located in Los Angeles.

Studebaker National Museum
"The Studebaker National Museum seeks to preserve the Studebaker heritage. Studebaker was the only company to span the time from settlers' wagons to high performance automobiles. View 114 years of automotive history, from the Studebaker family's Conestoga Wagon to the last car to roll off the assembly line." In addition to Studebakers and displays about Indiana's historic automotive industry, the museum collection includes several one-of-a-kind vehicles including the 1956 Packard and the 1934 Bendix Car. The new museum is scheduled to be open in late fall 2005. Located in South Bend, Indiana.

Alfred P. Sloan Museum
"Regional history, historic automobiles and hands-on science are major features of the Sloan Museum, located at 1221 E. Kearsley Street in Flint, Michigan....The Pierson Automotive Gallery presents major automotive exhibits featuring vehicles from the Sloan fleet of over 80 Flint-built automobiles."
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General Reference

Dictionary of Automotive Terms
List of "over 20,000 expressions for automobiles, bicycles, motorcycles, engines, and boats." Includes many acronyms and abbreviations as well as basic terms like "carburetor," "rotor" and "solenoid."

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